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Graal - A Bytecode Agnostic Compiler for the JVM

Thomas Würthinger (presentation): thomas.wuerthinger (at)
Lukas Stadler (workshop): stadler (at)


Graal is a just-in-time compiler written in Java that works with both the HotSpot VM and the Maxine VM [1]. It is based on a port of the HotSpot client compiler from C++ to Java, but it takes new approaches in some key areas, most notably the intermediate representation (IR): Graal's IR consists of an SSA-form, "sea-of-nodes" program dependence graph.

Java as the implementation language makes it much easier to let frameworks and applications interact with and extend the compiler. We think that this is a key aspect of Graal. The presentation provides an overview of Graal and gives examples for possible compiler extensions. The workshop should lead to discussions about which additional features Graal could provide that would benefit language implementors.